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2019考研英语语法复习:动词不定式作宾语及宾补

2018-06-04 13:45 来源:文都网校 阅读()

  为了更好的帮助大家复习英语,小编准备了2019考研英语语法解析,希望大家能够积累起来,快和小编一起来看一下吧!

  1、有些及物动词常用动词不定式作宾语。常见的这类动词有:afford负担得起,

  agree同意,arrange安排,ask要求,attempt试图,beg乞求,begin开始,choose选择,claim声称,consent同意,dare敢,decide决定,decline谢绝,desire欲想,demand要求,determine决心,expect期待,fail失败,forget忘记,hate讨厌,help帮助,hope希望,intend打算,learn学习,like喜欢,long渴望,manage设法,mean打算,need需要,offer主动提出,plan计划,prefer更喜欢,prepare准备,pretend假装,promise答应,refuse拒绝,remember记得,seek寻求,seem好像,tend倾向,threaten威胁,undertake承担,volunteer志愿,want想要,wish希望等。

  I agreed to support him. 我答应支持他。

  He said he wanted to be a professor. 他说他想当教授。

  My daughter preferred to have eggs and milk for breakfast when she was in her twenties.

  我女儿二十几岁时早饭喜欢吃鸡蛋和牛奶。

  2、不定式可以和how, which, what, who, whom, whose, when, where还有whether等词连用作宾语。常跟这种结构作宾语的动词有:ask询问,advise建议,consider考虑,decide决定,discover发现,discuss讨论,explain解释,find out查明,forget忘记,inquire打听,know知道,learn学会,remember记得,show演示,tell告诉,teach教,think想,understand懂得,wonder想知道,等等。例如:

  I don’t know where to get so much money. 我不知道去哪里搞这么多钱。

  They haven’t decided whether to leave or stay. 他们还没决定是走还是留。

  此外,这种不定式结构还可作主语,表语,和介词宾语等。

  How to live a happy life is a difficult question to answer. 怎样过幸福生活是个很难回答的问题

  The question is whom to choose for the position. 问题是这个位置选谁。

  That was a discussion about how to increase their strength. 那是一次关于怎样增强他们力量的讨论。

  He said nothing about what to do with her. 关于拿她怎么办,他啥也没说。

  She asked my suggestion just now about where to go for her holidays. 关于去哪里度假,她刚才征求了我的意见。

  3、有些动词需要不定式作宾语补足语。这种动词常见的有:ask请求,advise劝告,allow允许,beg乞求,believe相信,call on号召,cause促使,compel强迫,command指挥,direct指导,enable使…能够,encourage鼓励,expect期望,feel觉得,force迫使,get使得,hate不喜欢,have使,hear听见,help帮助,inspire鼓舞,intend 打算,invite邀请,instruct指示,know知道,lead引导,let让,like喜欢,listen to 听,look at看,make 使得, notice注意到, observe观察,order命令,permit允许,persuade说服,prefer更喜欢,press施加压力,remind提醒,request请求,teach教,tell告诉,urge敦促,want 想要,warn警告,wish希望,等等。

  I asked my mother to buy a new bike for me. 我请求妈妈给我买辆新自行车。

  Tony knew his girl friend to be a shy college student. 托尼知道他的女朋友是一个害羞的大学生。

  They helped you to get on the bus, didn’t they? 他们帮你上了汽车, 是吗?

  4、有些动词要求省掉to的不定式作宾语补语。这样的动词有:feel觉得,have使,hear听见,help帮助,let让,listen to 听,look at看,make使,notice 注意,see看见,observe 观察,watch观看 等,一类是感官动词,一类是使役动词。

  A policeman saw the accident happen. 一位警察看见事故发生。

  We listened to her talk about her experience abroad. 我们听她讲国外的经历。

  We’d be glad to have you work with us. 我们会很高兴有你和我们一起工作。

  上述help后面的不定式省掉to与保留to都可以。在被动语态中,上述动词后面的不定式要把省去的to还原。

  I heard the dog come in. 我听见那条狗进来。

  =The dog was heard to come in. 有人听见那条狗进来。

  I saw her go out by bike. 我看见她骑着自行车出去了。

  =She was seen to go out by bike. 有人看见她骑着自行车出去了。

  Can I help (to) lift this heavy box?   我可以帮着搬起这个沉重的箱子吗?

  You may as well help me (to)get things straight. 你不妨帮我把东西整理好。

  She helped the old woman (to) cross the street. 他帮助那位老妇人过街

  在had better(最好),would rather(宁愿),would sooner(宁愿),would (just) as soon(宁愿),cannot but(不能不,不由得不),cannot help but(不能不,不由得不)等成语后面也跟不带to的不定式:

  He would rather listen to others than talk himself. 他宁愿听别人也不愿自己说。

  He would sooner play than work. 他宁愿玩也不愿干活。

  You had better go away right now. 你最好立即就走。

  I would rather take this method. 我倒愿意采取这个办法。

  I’d rather walk than take a bus. 我宁可走也不愿坐公共汽车。

  She’d rather die than lose the children. 她宁可死也不愿失去孩子们。

  I’d rather not have eggs and bacon for breakfast.

  She’d sooner stay at home.

  I would as soon do it by myself.

  I would just as soon stay as go. 我宁愿住下也不愿去。

  We couldn’t but weep at the sad news.

  You can’t but respect them.

  Rather than和sooner than同义,都是“宁可”,“与其…(不如)”,“不是…(而是)”的意思。当它们放在句首时,其后跟不带to的不定式;在其它位置时其后的不定式可带也可不带t

  Rather than risk breaking up his marriage, he told his wife everything. 他把一切都告诉了妻子,而不是冒离婚的危险。

  Rather than cause trouble, he left. 他宁可走开而不愿引起麻烦。

  Sooner than marry that man, she would earn her living as a waitress. 她宁可当女招待养活自己,也不嫁给那个男人。

  He decided to write rather than telephone. 他决定写信,不打电话。

  The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than to increase wages. 经理相信重要的是投资买新机器,而不是增加工资。

  Rather than John do it, I’d prefer to do the job myself. 与其让John干这件事情,我宁可自己动手。

  4、有些动词要求省掉to的不定式作宾语补语。

  在Why 起首的疑问句中跟不带to的不定式:

  Why not come with us? 为什么不跟我们一起来呢? =Why don\' t you come with us?

  Why not go for a game of tennis? 为什么不去打网球呢?

  Why not relax yourself? 为什么不放松你自己呢?

  Why not try to train your character? 为什么不培养你的性格呢?

  Why not give the $40 to Tom? 干吗不把那40美金给汤姆呢?

  For God’s sake, why bring that up again? 看在上帝的份上,干吗又提这事呢?

  Why split hairs over the color of the dress? 干吗对连衣裙的颜色吹毛求疵呢?

  Why run this risk?  干吗冒这个险?

  Why risk breaking the law? 干吗冒犯法的险呢?

  5、不定式作宾语而后面还有宾语补语时,常用it来代替不定式短语,而把真正作宾语的不定式短语放在补足语后面。常见的动词有:consider认为,feel觉得,find发现,make使,think认为,等等。例如:

  I think it best to go. 我想最好走。

  Do you consider it right to send our doctors over? 你觉得派我们的医生去对吗?

  I found it strange for her not to come today. 我发现她今天没来是很奇怪的。

  注意:hope希望,demand要求,suggest建议,这三个词不能跟不定式作宾补。

  错误的句子:

  I hope you to be happy. 我希望你快乐。

  I suggest you to take him seriously.  我建议你要把他当回事。

  We demanded them to give us a definite answer.我们要求他们给个确切的答复。

  正确的句子:

  I hope that you’ll be happy. 我希望你快乐。I suggest that you take him seriously. 我建议你要把他当回事。

  I advise you not to take him seriously.  我建议你不要把他当回事。

  We demanded that they give us a definite answer. 我们要求他们给个确切的答复。

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