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2019考研英语语法复习:虚拟语气其他10种句型及用法

2018-04-16 11:07 来源:文都网校 阅读()

  2019考研已经开始准备了,英语复习中语法的复习非常重要,下面小编为大家准备了考研英语几种语法解析,希望对大家有所帮助。

  1、用在“wish+宾语从句”中,表示很难实现或不能实现的愿望,可以翻译为“但愿…”, “悔不该…”等。表示现在不能实现的愿望,从句的谓语动词用过去式;表示将来的愿望,从句的谓语动词用“would (could)+动词原形”;对过去的事情表示愿望,从句的谓语动词用 “had+过去分词” 或“could + have + 过去分词”。Wish 后面的宾语从句必须用虚拟语气,不管这个愿望是否能实现。如:

  I wish it were Spring all the year round.

  I wish you could go with us.

  We wish we had arrived there two hours earlier.

  2、用在as if/as though,或even if/even though引导的从句中: 这时,如果从句中表示的动作发生在过去,则谓语动词用had+过去分词形式;如果指的时现在的状况,则用过去式(be用were);指将来则用would(should, could)+动词原形。这里只看从句动作发生的时间,与主句的时态没有关系。

  3、在It is (high) time (that)…句型中,后面的从句的谓语动词常用过去式(be的过去式用were), 或用should+动词原形(should 不能省略)来表示。这句话的意思是“(现在)该…”。For example:

  It is time we left/should leave.

  It is high time that you got married.

  4、在 I would rather (that)…句型中,后面的从句的谓语动词用过去式(be的过去式用were)。这句话的意思是“我宁可…”,表示说话人的意愿。

  For example:

  I’d rather I were in the rain now.

  I’d rather you did not tell him.

  5、用在suppose开头的祈使句中,从句的谓语动词变化与as if后面的动词变化规律相同,用过去式、过去完成式、或过去将来式。意思是“假如…”,但suppose 是动词,不是连词。如:

  Suppose the boss walked in. What should I do?

  Suppose Saddam had not been captured. What would the U.S. do?

  Suppose Chen Shui-bian should declare Taiwan independent. What would China do?

  6、用在for fear that或lest引导的从句中,表示“怕…”“万一…”等意思。从句的谓语动词用should+动词原形,should 可以省略。如:

  She closed the windows for fear that she (should) catch cold.

  The officer forbade the use of artillery lest the city’s industry be damaged.

  Lest the wall should collapse, they evacuated from the building.

  7. 在表示建议、要求、命令等意思的动词,如arrange, command, demand, desire, insist, order, propose, request, require, suggest, beg, move(提议)后面的宾语从句中,谓语动词用should + 动词原形,should 可以省略,而引导宾语从句的that 不能省略。例如:

  We suggested that we (should) have a meeting.

  We insisted that they (should) go with us.

  The doctor ordered that she (should) stay in bed for a few days.

  He demanded that we (should) start right away.

  The commander ordered that the bridge (should) be bombed.

  The villagers requested that the old building not be pulled down.

  Now let’s do some translation:

  总经理坚持该项目必须按计划执行。

  The general manager insisted that the project be carried out as planned.

  省长请求再给他一次机会。

  The governor requested that he be given another chance.

  美国要求伊朗必须无条件放弃其核武器计划。

  The United States demanded that Iran should unconditionally give up its nuclear weapon program (program to develop nuclear weapons)

  最高法院裁定此案必须重新审理。

  The Supreme Court ruled that this case be retried.

  医生建议,即使在节假日人们也不应该熬夜。

  8、使用上述表示建议、要求、命令等意思的动词派生的名词,或在这些动词用作名词时,名词之后的从句用虚拟语气,即从句的谓语动词用should+动词原形,should 可以省略。从句的引导词that 不能省略。这与上述第7项类似。如:

  He made a request that he (should) be allowed to take 3 days off. = He requested that he be allowed to take 3 days off.

  Our suggestion is that education not be industrialized. = We suggest that education not be industrialized.

  The president’s decision is that the war against terrorism be launched at the right time. =The president decided that the war against terrorism be launched at the right time.

  9、上述动词在It is suggested that…, It is required that…, It’s requested that…, It’s ordered that…, It’s arranged that…句型中,that 之后的从句用虚拟语气,即谓语动词用should+动词原形, should 可以省略,但引导词that 不能省略。如:

  It was suggested that he attend the conference.

  It was requested that the trial be openly reported.

  10、在It’s important (imperative, necessary, essential, vital, desirable, advisable, better) that…句型中,that 引导的从句用虚拟语气,即谓语动词用should + 动词原形,should可以省略。这个句型表示说话人的意见、要求等。

  For example:

  It is essential that there should be enough food and clothing for the winter.

  It is desirable that your wedding be postponed until next July.

  It is imperative that the board chairman be present at the board meeting.

  另外,在一些习惯用语中也有虚拟语气的形式。但最好把这些习惯用语作为一种句型来记住。如:

  May you be happy!

  May you succeed!

  Long live the People’s Republic of China!

  Everybody leave the room!

  You had better not resign.

  I would rather not tell you.

  总之,虚拟语气是英语中的一个难点,因为虚拟语气的用法和句型较多,动词的变化比较复杂。在学习的时候要逐个过关。同时,也要善于发现虚拟语气的规律。根据动词的变化,大致可以把虚拟语气分为三种:

  一种是动词用过去式,过去分词式,或过去将来式,这主要是用if…, wish, suppose的情况;

  一种是动词用should+动词原形(should可以省略),这主要用于表示建议、要求、命令等意思的动词或名词后面所接的从句,以及It is important (necessary) that…后面所接的从句;

  一种是动词用过去式,如It is (high) time (that)…和I would rather 后面的从句。同学们还可以自己总结适合自己的规律,如把虚拟语气句型可以分为用于简单句、条件状语从句、宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句、定语从句、同位语从句等。

  Now let’s do some exercises to consolidate what we have learned about subjunctive mood:

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